Changes

VarietyParameterOld ValueNew Value
Scottish English She/her used for inanimate referents C B
Irish English She/her used for inanimate referents C B
Australian English She/her used for inanimate referents B C
Guyanese Creole (Creolese) He/him used for inanimate referents A B
Cameroon English He/him used for inanimate referents C D
East Anglian English Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it C D
Newfoundland English Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it B ?
Chicano English Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it B ?
Jamaican English Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it B ?
San Andrés Creole Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it D B
Ghanaian English Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it D B
Nigerian English Alternative forms/phrases for referential (non-dummy) it A ?
Belizean Creole Alternative forms/phrases for dummy it A B
Black South African English Alternative forms/phrases for dummy it C D
Newfoundland English Generalized third person singular pronoun: object pronouns B C
Ghanaian English Me instead of I in coordinate subjects D C
Scottish English Myself/meself instead of I in coordinate subjects C B
Gullah Myself/meself instead of I in coordinate subjects B D
Belizean Creole Myself/meself instead of I in coordinate subjects C D
Ghanaian English Myself/meself instead of I in coordinate subjects D C
Scottish English Benefactive “personal dative” construction A D
Belizean Creole Benefactive “personal dative” construction C ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Benefactive “personal dative” construction A D
Pakistani English Benefactive “personal dative” construction B D
San Andrés Creole No gender distinction in third person singular B A
Belizean Creole No gender distinction in third person singular A B
Guyanese Creole (Creolese) No gender distinction in third person singular A B
Vernacular Liberian English No gender distinction in third person singular D C
Cameroon English No gender distinction in third person singular B C
Ghanaian English Regularized reflexives paradigm D C
Tanzanian English Regularized reflexives paradigm B D
Black South African English Regularized reflexives paradigm D C
Indian South African English Regularized reflexives paradigm A D
Australian English Regularized reflexives paradigm C ?
East Anglian English Subject pronoun forms serving as base for reflexives A D
San Andrés Creole Subject pronoun forms serving as base for reflexives A B
Guyanese Creole (Creolese) Subject pronoun forms serving as base for reflexives A ?
Belizean Creole No number distinction in reflexives C ?
Tanzanian English No number distinction in reflexives B D
Pakistani English No number distinction in reflexives D C
Australian English No number distinction in reflexives C B
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Absolute use of reflexives A D
Nigerian English Absolute use of reflexives C D
Gullah Emphatic reflexives with own A ?
Belizean Creole Emphatic reflexives with own C B
Cameroon Pidgin Emphatic reflexives with own D B
Black South African English Emphatic reflexives with own B C
Belizean Creole Creation of possessive pronouns with prefix fi- +personal pronoun B A
Sranan Creation of possessive pronouns with prefix fi- +personal pronoun D B
San Andrés Creole Subject pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: first person plural B D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Subject pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular D B
Ghanaian Pidgin Subject pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular D B
Cameroon Pidgin Subject pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular ? B
Aboriginal English Subject pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular B C
Ghanaian Pidgin Subject pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person plural B D
Belizean Creole You as (modifying) possessive pronoun A ?
Tanzanian English You as (modifying) possessive pronoun C D
San Andrés Creole Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular B D
Guyanese Creole (Creolese) Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular D X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person singular A D
Saramaccan Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person plural A X
Sranan Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person plural A X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: third person plural A X
Saramaccan Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: first person singular A X
Sranan Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: first person singular A X
Saramaccan Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: first person plural A X
Sranan Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: first person plural A X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Object pronoun forms as (modifying) possessive pronouns: first person plural D X
Jamaican Creole Use of us + NP in subject function C ?
Saramaccan Use of us + NP in subject function B X
Tanzanian English Use of us + NP in subject function B D
Indian South African English Use of us + NP in subject function C D
Scottish English Use of us in object function with singular referent C D
Pakistani English Use of us in object function with singular referent C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Non-coordinated subject pronoun forms in object function D X
Vernacular Liberian English Non-coordinated subject pronoun forms in object function D C
Ghanaian Pidgin Non-coordinated subject pronoun forms in object function D X
Tanzanian English Non-coordinated subject pronoun forms in object function C D
Belizean Creole Non-coordinated object pronoun forms in subject function B X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Non-coordinated object pronoun forms in subject function D X
Ghanaian Pidgin Non-coordinated object pronoun forms in subject function D X
Tanzanian English Non-coordinated object pronoun forms in subject function C D
Belizean Creole Distinction between emphatic vs. non-emphatic forms of pronouns B D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Forms or phrases for the second person plural pronoun other than you D A
Ghanaian English Forms or phrases for the second person plural pronoun other than you C B
Tanzanian English Forms or phrases for the second person plural pronoun other than you B D
Scottish English Forms or phrases for the second person singular pronoun other than you A C
Australian English Forms or phrases for the second person singular pronoun other than you C ?
Tanzanian English More number distinctions in personal pronouns than simply singular vs. plural C D
Belizean Creole Specialized plural markers for pronouns B D
Cameroon English Specialized plural markers for pronouns D A
Tanzanian English Specialized plural markers for pronouns B D
Australian English Specialized plural markers for pronouns B ?
Chicano English Plural forms of interrogative pronouns: reduplication B ?
Liberian Settler English Singular it for plural they in anaphoric use D C
Ghanaian English Singular it for plural they in anaphoric use D C
Chicano English Object pronoun drop C ?
Pakistani English Object pronoun drop C B
Scottish English Subject pronoun drop: referential pronouns C B
White Zimbabwean English Subject pronoun drop: referential pronouns B ?
Scottish English Subject pronoun drop: dummy pronouns B D
Black South African English Subject pronoun drop: dummy pronouns C D
Australian English Subject pronoun drop: dummy pronouns B ?
Jamaican Creole Insertion of it where StE favours zero B C
Saramaccan Insertion of it where StE favours zero B X
Nigerian Pidgin Insertion of it where StE favours zero C X
Indian South African English Insertion of it where StE favours zero A C
Jamaican Creole Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions A B
Belizean Creole Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions C B
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions D X
Nigerian Pidgin Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions B X
Cameroon Pidgin Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions D X
Tanzanian English Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions B C
Black South African English Deletion of it in referential it is-constructions A C
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Deletion of it in non-referential it is-constructions D X
Nigerian Pidgin Deletion of it in non-referential it is-constructions D X
Cameroon Pidgin Deletion of it in non-referential it is-constructions D X
Chicano English Regularization of plural formation: extension of -s to StE irregular plurals C ?
Jamaican Creole Regularization of plural formation: extension of -s to StE irregular plurals C D
Nigerian Pidgin Regularization of plural formation: extension of -s to StE irregular plurals ? X
Kenyan English Regularization of plural formation: extension of -s to StE irregular plurals C B
Pakistani English Regularization of plural formation: extension of -s to StE irregular plurals C ?
Australian English Regularization of plural formation: extension of -s to StE irregular plurals C ?
Jamaican Creole Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization C D
San Andrés Creole Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization C D
Ghanaian English Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization D B
Ghanaian Pidgin Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization D X
Nigerian Pidgin Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization ? X
Cameroon Pidgin Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization D X
Australian English Regularization of plural formation: phonological regularization C ?
Belizean Creole Plural marking via preposed elements B A
Belizean Creole Plural marking via postposed elements B A
Tanzanian English Plural marking via postposed elements C D
Chicano English Associative plural marked by postposed and them/them all/dem C ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Associative plural marked by postposed and them/them all/dem C D
Tanzanian English Associative plural marked by postposed and them/them all/dem C D
Australian English Associative plural marked by postposed and them/them all/dem B ?
San Andrés Creole Group plurals A D
Pakistani English Group plurals ? D
Australian English Group plurals B ?
Jamaican Creole Different count/mass noun distinctions resulting in use of plural for StE singular B C
Belizean Creole Different count/mass noun distinctions resulting in use of plural for StE singular C D
Nigerian Pidgin Different count/mass noun distinctions resulting in use of plural for StE singular C D
Australian English Different count/mass noun distinctions resulting in use of plural for StE singular B C
Belizean Creole Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers B D
Saramaccan Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers A X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers A D
Liberian Settler English Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers B D
Nigerian English Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers C ?
Tanzanian English Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers C D
Black South African English Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers B C
Aboriginal English Absence of plural marking only after quantifiers A X
Cameroon Pidgin Plural marking generally optional: for nouns with non-human referents D ?
Tanzanian English Plural marking generally optional: for nouns with non-human referents C D
Jamaican English Use of definite article where StE has indefinite article B C
Jamaican Creole Use of definite article where StE has indefinite article B C
Ghanaian Pidgin Use of definite article where StE has indefinite article C D
Australian English Use of definite article where StE has indefinite article B ?
Black South African English Use of zero article where StE has definite article ? C
Australian English Use of zero article where StE has definite article C ?
Black South African English Use of definite article where StE favours zero B C
Australian English Use of definite article where StE favours zero B ?
Jamaican English Use of indefinite article where StE favours zero B C
Black South African English Use of indefinite article where StE favours zero D B
Gullah Indefinite article one/wan B ?
Belizean Creole Demonstratives for definite articles B A
Ghanaian Pidgin Demonstratives for definite articles C B
Pakistani English Demonstratives for definite articles C ?
Chicano English Them instead of demonstrative those B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Them instead of demonstrative those A D
Australian English Them instead of demonstrative those D B
Jamaican Creole Yon/yonder indicating remoteness C ?
Butler English Yon/yonder indicating remoteness B D
Scottish English Proximal and distal demonstratives with ʼhereʼ and ʼthereʼ C D
Ghanaian Pidgin No number distinction in demonstratives A B
Australian English No number distinction in demonstratives C ?
Chicano English Group genitives B ?
Jamaican Creole Group genitives B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Group genitives A X
Nigerian Pidgin Group genitives B X
Cameroon Pidgin Group genitives C ?
Australian English Group genitives B ?
Hawaiʼi Creole Group genitives B X
Indian South African English Existential construction to express possessive C D
Gullah Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase following possessed NP B C
Belizean Creole Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase following possessed NP D B
Sranan Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase following possessed NP B A
Liberian Settler English Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase following possessed NP C D
Norfolk Island/ Pitcairn English Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase following possessed NP D B
Australian English Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase preceding possessed NP C ?
Norfolk Island/ Pitcairn English Phrases with for + noun to express possession: for-phrase preceding possessed NP B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Postnominal phrases with bilong/blong/long/blo to express possession C ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Omission of genitive suffix; possession expressed through bare juxtaposition of nouns D C
Cameroon Pidgin Omission of genitive suffix; possession expressed through bare juxtaposition of nouns A B
Newfoundland English Double comparatives and superlatives A B
Chicano English Double comparatives and superlatives B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Double comparatives and superlatives D X
Nigerian Pidgin Double comparatives and superlatives D X
Australian English Double comparatives and superlatives D C
Newfoundland English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of synthetic marking A B
Chicano English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of synthetic marking B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Regularized comparison strategies: extension of synthetic marking D X
Vernacular Liberian English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of synthetic marking C D
Nigerian Pidgin Regularized comparison strategies: extension of synthetic marking D X
Australian English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of synthetic marking D C
Scottish English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of analytic marking B D
Newfoundland English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of analytic marking A B
Belizean Creole Regularized comparison strategies: extension of analytic marking B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Regularized comparison strategies: extension of analytic marking D X
Ghanaian English Regularized comparison strategies: extension of analytic marking D C
Nigerian Pidgin Regularized comparison strategies: extension of analytic marking D X
Saramaccan Much as comparative marker A X
Nigerian Pidgin Much as comparative marker D X
Black South African English Much as comparative marker B C
Malaysian English Much as comparative marker A D
Australian English Much as comparative marker B C
Gullah As/to as comparative markers B ?
San Andrés Creole As/to as comparative markers A D
Cameroon Pidgin As/to as comparative markers X D
Black South African English As/to as comparative markers C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Comparatives and superlatives of participles D X
Ghanaian Pidgin Comparatives and superlatives of participles D X
Nigerian Pidgin Comparatives and superlatives of participles D X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Comparative marking only with than A X
Ghanaian English Comparative marking only with than D C
Ghanaian Pidgin Comparative marking only with than D X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Comparative marking with more…and D X
Ghanaian Pidgin Comparative marking with more…and D X
Nigerian Pidgin Comparative marking with more…and D X
Black South African English Comparative marking with more…and C D
Pakistani English Comparative marking with more…and D ?
Butler English Comparative marking with more…and C D
Cameroon Pidgin Zero marking of degree X D
Pakistani English Zero marking of degree ? D
Nigerian Pidgin Attributive adjectival modifiers follow head noun C X
Chicano English Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs C ?
Saramaccan Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs B X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs D X
Nigerian Pidgin Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs D X
Cameroon Pidgin Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs D X
Tanzanian English Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs C B
Pakistani English Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to stative verbs B ?
Chicano English Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to habitual contexts C ?
Saramaccan Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to habitual contexts A X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to habitual contexts D X
Nigerian Pidgin Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to habitual contexts D X
Cameroon Pidgin Wider range of uses of progressive be + V-ing than in StE: extension to habitual contexts D X
Chicano English Invariant be as habitual marker D C
Tanzanian English Invariant be as habitual marker C D
Pakistani English Do as habitual marker ? B
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Other non-standard habitual markers: synthetic D X
Ghanaian Pidgin Other non-standard habitual markers: synthetic D X
Nigerian Pidgin Other non-standard habitual markers: synthetic D X
Cameroon Pidgin Other non-standard habitual markers: synthetic D X
San Andrés Creole Other non-standard habitual markers: analytic D A
Belizean Creole Other non-standard habitual markers: analytic B A
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Other non-standard habitual markers: analytic D A
Vernacular Liberian English Other non-standard habitual markers: analytic C B
Indian South African English Other non-standard habitual markers: analytic B A
Scottish English Be sat/stood with progressive meaning B C
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Be sat/stood with progressive meaning D X
Nigerian Pidgin Be sat/stood with progressive meaning D X
Cameroon Pidgin Be sat/stood with progressive meaning D X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) There with past participle in resultative contexts D X
Nigerian Pidgin There with past participle in resultative contexts D X
Cameroon Pidgin There with past participle in resultative contexts D X
Pakistani English There with past participle in resultative contexts ? C
Nigerian English After-perfect C D
Saramaccan Levelling of the difference between present perfect and simple past: simple past for StE present perfect A X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Levelling of the difference between present perfect and simple past: simple past for StE present perfect D X
Saramaccan Levelling of the difference between present perfect and simple past: present perfect for StE simple past A X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Levelling of the difference between present perfect and simple past: present perfect for StE simple past D X
Black South African English Levelling of the difference between present perfect and simple past: present perfect for StE simple past B C
White South African English Levelling of the difference between present perfect and simple past: present perfect for StE simple past C B
Belizean Creole Simple present for continuative or experiential perfect B X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Simple present for continuative or experiential perfect D X
Ghanaian English Simple present for continuative or experiential perfect D C
Pakistani English Simple present for continuative or experiential perfect B D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Be as perfect auxiliary ? X
Australian English Be as perfect auxiliary B C
Cameroon Pidgin Do as unstressed tense marker X D
San Andrés Creole Completive/perfect done D A
Belizean Creole Completive/perfect done A B
Ghanaian Pidgin Completive/perfect done D X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Completive/perfect have/be + done + past participle D X
Nigerian Pidgin Completive/perfect have/be + done + past participle D X
Cameroon Pidgin Completive/perfect have/be + done + past participle D X
Australian English Completive/perfect have/be + done + past participle C ?
Ghanaian Pidgin “Sequential” or “irrealis” be done D X
Belizean Creole Perfect marker already C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Perfect marker already D A
Nigerian Pidgin Perfect marker already D X
Pakistani English Perfect marker already ? C
Ghanaian Pidgin Finish-derived completive markers A B
Black South African English Finish-derived completive markers B C
Belizean Creole Past tense/anterior marker been B A
Black South African English Past tense/anterior marker been D C
Belizean Creole Anterior had + bare root B ?
Pakistani English Loosening of sequence of tenses rule D C
Newfoundland English Go-based future markers A D
Indian South African English Go-based future markers A D
White South African English Go-based future markers A D
San Andrés Creole Volition-based future markers other than will B A
Saramaccan Volition-based future markers other than will A X
Jamaican Creole Present tense forms for neutral future reference C B
San Andrés Creole Present tense forms for neutral future reference D C
Belizean Creole Present tense forms for neutral future reference B C
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Present tense forms for neutral future reference D X
Ghanaian English Present tense forms for neutral future reference D C
Cameroon Pidgin Present tense forms for neutral future reference D X
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Is for am/will with 1st person singular D X
Cameroon Pidgin Is for am/will with 1st person singular D X
Australian English Is for am/will with 1st person singular C ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Would for (distant) future in contrast to will (immediate future) D X
Nigerian English Would for (distant) future in contrast to will (immediate future) C ?
Nigerian Pidgin Would for (distant) future in contrast to will (immediate future) D X
Cameroon Pidgin Would for (distant) future in contrast to will (immediate future) D X
Scottish English Would in if-clauses C D
Chicano English Would in if-clauses ? C
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Would in if-clauses D X
Nigerian Pidgin Would in if-clauses D X
Cameroon Pidgin Would in if-clauses D X
Black South African English Would in if-clauses C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Double modals D ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Double modals D ?
Cameroon Pidgin Double modals D ?
Kenyan English Double modals B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Epistemic mustn’t D X
Nigerian Pidgin Epistemic mustn’t C X
Cameroon Pidgin Epistemic mustn’t D X
White Zimbabwean English Epistemic mustn’t B ?
Belizean Creole Present tense forms of modals used where StE has past tense forms B ?
White Zimbabwean English Present tense forms of modals used where StE has past tense forms B ?
San Andrés Creole New quasi-modals: core modal meanings A D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) New quasi-modals: core modal meanings D X
Nigerian Pidgin New quasi-modals: core modal meanings D X
Cameroon Pidgin New quasi-modals: core modal meanings ? X
San Andrés Creole New quasi-modals: aspectual meanings A D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) New quasi-modals: aspectual meanings D X
Nigerian Pidgin New quasi-modals: aspectual meanings D X
Cameroon Pidgin New quasi-modals: aspectual meanings C X
Australian English New quasi-modals: aspectual meanings C ?
Scottish English Non-standard use of modals for politeness reasons C D
Belizean Creole Non-standard use of modals for politeness reasons C ?
Nigerian English Non-standard use of modals for politeness reasons B ?
Kenyan English Non-standard use of modals for politeness reasons C ?
Australian English Non-standard use of modals for politeness reasons C ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: regularization of irregular verb paradigms D X
Vernacular Liberian English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: regularization of irregular verb paradigms C D
Ghanaian English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: regularization of irregular verb paradigms D C
Indian South African English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: regularization of irregular verb paradigms B C
Indian English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: regularization of irregular verb paradigms B C
Australian English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: regularization of irregular verb paradigms B ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: unmarked forms D A
Irish English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past tense replacing the past participle C B
Jamaican Creole Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past tense replacing the past participle B A
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past tense replacing the past participle D X
Kenyan English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past tense replacing the past participle B C
Black South African English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past tense replacing the past participle B C
Chicano English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past participle replacing the past tense form C ?
Jamaican Creole Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past participle replacing the past tense form B A
San Andrés Creole Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past participle replacing the past tense form C X
Belizean Creole Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past participle replacing the past tense form C ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past participle replacing the past tense form D X
Australian English Levelling of past tense/past participle verb forms: past participle replacing the past tense form B A
Ghanaian English Double marking of past tense D C
Indian South African English Double marking of past tense C D
Pakistani English Double marking of past tense D C
Australian English A-prefixing on ing-forms C ?
Australian English Special inflected forms of be C ?
Butler English Special inflected forms of have C X
Belizean Creole Distinctive forms for auxiliary vs. full verb meanings of primary verbs C D
Pakistani English Distinctive forms for auxiliary vs. full verb meanings of primary verbs C D
Australian English Distinctive forms for auxiliary vs. full verb meanings of primary verbs B C
Belizean Creole Other forms/phrases for copula ʼbeʼ: before NPs B A
Vernacular Liberian English Other forms/phrases for copula ʼbeʼ: before NPs B C
Belizean Creole Other forms/phrases for copula ʼbeʼ: before locatives B A
San Andrés Creole Other forms/phrases for copula ʼbeʼ: before AdjPs X D
Ghanaian English Use of gotten and got with distinct meanings (dynamic vs. static) D C
Pakistani English Use of gotten and got with distinct meanings (dynamic vs. static) ? B
Ghanaian English Use of gotten instead of got D C
Pakistani English Use of gotten instead of got ? B
Australian English Use of gotten instead of got D B
Falkland Islands English Use of gotten instead of got C ?
Belizean Creole Was for conditional were C ?
Nigerian English Was for conditional were C ?
San Andrés Creole Serial verbs: constructions with 3 verbs D C
Belizean Creole Serial verbs: constructions with 3 verbs C B
Butler English Serial verbs: constructions with 3 verbs C X
Nigerian English Multiple negation / negative concord C ?
Pakistani English Multiple negation / negative concord C ?
Pakistani English Ain’t as the negated form of be C ?
Chicano English Ainʼt as the negated form of have B ?
Belizean Creole Invariant don’t for all persons in the present tense C D
Black South African English Invariant don’t for all persons in the present tense B C
Indian South African English Invariant don’t for all persons in the present tense A B
Liberian Settler English Never as preverbal past tense negator D C
Tanzanian English Never as preverbal past tense negator C B
Black South African English Never as preverbal past tense negator B C
Gullah No as preverbal negator C ?
Belizean Creole No more/nomo as negative existential marker C ?
Butler English Was – weren’t split C D
Australian English Was – weren’t split B C
Irish English Amnʼt in tag questions C B
Belizean Creole Invariant non-concord tags B ?
Liberian Settler English Invariant non-concord tags A B
Tanzanian English Invariant non-concord tags X B
Black South African English Invariant non-concord tags D B
Pakistani English Invariant non-concord tags D B
Liberian Settler English Fronted invariant tag A B
Belizean Creole Non-standard system underlying responses to negative yes/no questions A ?
Pakistani English Non-standard system underlying responses to negative yes/no questions ? C
Butler English Invariant present tense forms due to zero marking for the third person singular A B
Australian English Invariant present tense forms due to zero marking for the third person singular D C
Ghanaian English Invariant present tense forms due to generalization of 3rd person –s to all persons D C
Butler English Invariant present tense forms due to generalization of 3rd person –s to all persons B C
Belizean Creole Existential / presentational there’s/there is/there was with plural subjects C D
Australian English Existential / presentational there’s/there is/there was with plural subjects B A
Chicano English Variant forms of dummy subject there in existential clauses ? B
Belizean Creole Variant forms of dummy subject there in existential clauses A B
Australian English Variant forms of dummy subject there in existential clauses C ?
Chicano English Deletion of auxiliary be: before progressive C ?
Belizean Creole Deletion of auxiliary be: before progressive B A
Ghanaian English Deletion of auxiliary be: before progressive D C
Australian English Deletion of auxiliary be: before progressive D C
Belizean Creole Deletion of auxiliary be: before gonna B A
Ghanaian English Deletion of auxiliary be: before gonna D C
Australian English Deletion of auxiliary be: before gonna D B
Chicano English Deletion of copula be: before NPs C ?
Pakistani English Deletion of copula be: before NPs C ?
Saramaccan Deletion of copula be: before AdjPs A X
Belizean Creole Deletion of copula be: before locatives C B
Saramaccan Deletion of copula be: before locatives C X
Sranan Deletion of copula be: before locatives C D
Gullah Deletion of auxiliary have C X
Jamaican Creole Deletion of auxiliary have A X
Belizean Creole Deletion of auxiliary have C A
Butler English Agreement sensitive to subject type C D
Australian English Agreement sensitive to subject type D C
Butler English Agreement sensitive to position of subject C D
Butler English Northern Subject Rule C D
Vernacular Liberian English Invariant be with non-habitual function D C
Scottish English Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts B D
Sranan Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts A X
Ghanaian Pidgin Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts D X
Black South African English Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts B C
Indian South African English Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts A B
Butler English Relativizer that or what in non-restrictive contexts B ?
East Anglian English Which for ‘who’ C D
Sranan Which for ‘who’ C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Which for ‘who’ A X
Black South African English Which for ‘who’ B C
Australian English Which for ‘who’ C ?
Black South African English Relativizer as C D
Indian South African English Relativizer as C D
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) Relativizer what or a form derived from what A D
Ghanaian English Relativizer what or a form derived from what D C
Australian English Relativizer what or a form derived from what C ?
Falkland Islands English Relativizer what or a form derived from what D C
Saramaccan Gapping/zero-relativization in subject position C D
Liberian Settler English Gapping/zero-relativization in subject position D C
Gullah Resumptive/shadow pronouns D B
Belizean Creole Resumptive/shadow pronouns B C
Ghanaian English Resumptive/shadow pronouns D C
Kenyan English Resumptive/shadow pronouns A C
Butler English Resumptive/shadow pronouns A D
Indian South African English Postposed one as sole relativizer C D
Belizean Creole Correlative constructions C ?
Indian English “Linking relative clauses” A B
Scottish English Deletion of stranded prepositions in relative clauses (“preposition chopping”) C D
Belizean Creole Deletion of stranded prepositions in relative clauses (“preposition chopping”) B ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Deletion of stranded prepositions in relative clauses (“preposition chopping”) X ?
Nigerian Pidgin Deletion of stranded prepositions in relative clauses (“preposition chopping”) B ?
Chicano English Reduced relative phrases preceding head-noun C ?
Belizean Creole Reduced relative phrases preceding head-noun C ?
Pakistani English Reduced relative phrases preceding head-noun D B
Belizean Creole For-based complementizers B A
Pakistani English For-based complementizers D ?
Pakistani English Unsplit for to in infinitival purpose clauses D C
Scottish English For (to) as infinitive marker C D
Liberian Settler English For (to) as infinitive marker C ?
Pakistani English For (to) as infinitive marker D C
Scottish English As what / than what in comparative clauses C B
San Andrés Creole As what / than what in comparative clauses A D
Belizean Creole As what / than what in comparative clauses C ?
Kenyan English As what / than what in comparative clauses B A
Ghanaian English Existentials with forms of get D C
Ghanaian Pidgin Existentials with forms of get A B
White Zimbabwean English Existentials with forms of get C X
White Zimbabwean English Substitution of that-clause for infinitival subclause B C
Ghanaian English Addition of to where StE has bare infinitive D C
Belizean Creole Non-finite clause complements with bare root form rather than -ing form B ?
Vernacular Liberian English Clause-final but = ʼreallyʼ C D
Australian English Clause-final but = ʼreallyʼ B C
Sranan No subordination; chaining construction linking two main verbs (motion and activity) B D
Ghanaian English Conjunction doubling: clause + conj. + conj. + clause D C
Pakistani English Conjunction doubling: correlative conj.s ? B
Chicano English Omission of StE prepositions B ?
Belizean Creole Omission of StE prepositions B A
Sranan Omission of StE prepositions A C
Ghanaian English Omission of StE prepositions D B
Pakistani English Omission of StE prepositions C ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Use of postpositions C B
Ghanaian English Affirmative anymore ‘nowadays’ D C
Belizean Creole Adverb-forming suffixes –way and –time B ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Adverb-forming suffixes –way and –time D B
Belizean Creole Degree modifier adverbs have the same form as adjectives A ?
Nigerian English Degree modifier adverbs have the same form as adjectives B ?
Belizean Creole Other adverbs have the same form as adjectives A ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Other adverbs have the same form as adjectives B A
Maltese English Too; too much; very much ‘very’ as qualifier B D
Jamaican Creole Too; too much; very much ‘very’ as qualifier ? B
Belizean Creole Too; too much; very much ‘very’ as qualifier C ?
Ghanaian Pidgin Too; too much; very much ‘very’ as qualifier A B
Australian English Too; too much; very much ‘very’ as qualifier C ?
Gullah Other options for clefting than StE D B
Pakistani English Other options for clefting than StE ? D
White Zimbabwean English Other possibilities for fronting than StE B D
Pakistani English Other possibilities for fronting than StE C ?
Scottish English Sentence-initial focus marker C B
Welsh English Sentence-initial focus marker D A
Pakistani English Sentence-initial focus marker C D
Jamaican Creole “Negative inversion” A D
Vernacular Liberian English “Negative inversion” C D
Nigerian English “Negative inversion” B ?
Chicano English Inverted word order in indirect questions ? B
Ghanaian Pidgin Inverted word order in indirect questions A D
Australian English Inverted word order in indirect questions C ?
Welsh English No inversion/no auxiliaries in wh-questions D B
Newfoundland English No inversion/no auxiliaries in wh-questions D B
Kenyan English No inversion/no auxiliaries in wh-questions D A
Australian English No inversion/no auxiliaries in wh-questions C ?
Krio (Sierra Leone Creole) No inversion/no auxiliaries in main clause yes/no questions ? A
Nigerian English No inversion/no auxiliaries in main clause yes/no questions A ?
Tanzanian English No inversion/no auxiliaries in main clause yes/no questions X B
Belizean Creole Doubly filled COMP-position with wh-words A D
Maltese English Superlative marker most occurring before head noun B ?
Jamaican Creole Superlative marker most occurring before head noun B C
Belizean Creole Superlative marker most occurring before head noun C D
Saramaccan Superlative marker most occurring before head noun A X
Scottish English Either order of objects in double object constructions (if both objects are pronominal) C D
East Anglian English Either order of objects in double object constructions (if both objects are pronominal) B C
Guyanese Creole (Creolese) Either order of objects in double object constructions (if both objects are pronominal) A D
East Anglian English Like as a focussing device A B
Ghanaian Pidgin Like as a focussing device B D
Australian English Like as a focussing device B A
East Anglian English Like as a quotative particle A B
Belizean Creole Like as a quotative particle B C
Australian English Like as a quotative particle B C